Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can infect animals and humans. Three new, more dangerous coronaviruses have emerged in the 21st century: SARS-CoV-2 (causing COVID-19), SARS, and MERS. See NIAID website for more information.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease emerged from Wuhan, China in late 2019 and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. See NIAID website for more information.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in China during a 2003 outbreak. SARS was recognized as the first severe and easily transmissible new disease to emerge in the 21st century. See NIAID website for more information.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by the MERS-associated coronavirus (MERS‐CoV). MERS was first identified in Saudi Arabia in September 2012 and can be spread from infected dromedary camels to humans. See NIAID website for more information.
Filoviruses are a virus family that can infect humans and non-human primates and cause severe hemorrhagic fever. Filoviruses originate in animals such as bats and primates and are passed to humans through direct contact with an infected animal. See NIAID website for more information.
Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by infection with a virus species in the Ebolaviruses genus. It often has high mortality rates and affects humans and primates. See CDC website for more information.
Marburg virus was first discovered in 1967 when laboratory workers who were working with African monkeys in Marburg, Germany became ill. There have since been outbreaks in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda, as well as Germany and Serbia. See CDC website for more information.
Flaviviruses are a family of small, single-stranded, enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses. Some flaviviruses can be transmitted to humans or animals by infected arthropods such as ticks and mosquitos and cause disease (arboviruses). See CDC website for more information.
Yellow fever virus is a flavivirus that is spread to people through bites by infected mosquitos. Yellow fever is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. See CDC website for more information.
Dengue virus is spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Dengue is carried by Aedes species mosquitos and is found in tropical and subtropical areas of in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. See the NIAID website for more information.
Zika virus is a flavivirus that is primarily spread to humans through the bite of infected mosquitos. Zika is found in 86 countries and territories reporting evidence of mosquito transmitted Zika virus since its discovery. See the NIAID website for more information.
Japanese encephalitis virus is a flavivirus and is transmitted to humans, primarily in rural areas of Asia and the western Pacific through the Culex species of mosquitos. See CDC website for more information.
West Nile virus was first discovered in Uganda in 1937 and is common in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America, and West Asia. West Nile virus is the primary cause of mosquito-borne disease in the U.S., with the first outbreak in the U.S. in 1999. See the NIAID website for more information.
Bunyavirales is an order of more than 300 viruses and includes the viral families Arenaviridae, Hantaviridae, Nairoviridae, and Phenuiviridae among others. Example viruses in this order include Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Lassa virus, and Sin Nombre virus. See the CDC website for more information.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus belongs to the Nairoviridae virus family and is a tick-borne virus that can be found in Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, China, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Africa, and the Middle East. See the CDC website for more information.
Lassa virus is part of the Arenaviridae virus family (recently reclassified as part of the Bunyavirales order) and is found in West Africa, including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. See the CDC website for more information.
Rift Valley Fever
Rift Valley fever is part of the Phenuiviridae virus family and is often seen in domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep and is endemic to much of Sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus can be transmitted to humans through contact with blood, bodily fluids, or tissue of infected animals, as well as through mosquitos. See the CDC website for more information.
Chikungunya virus is part of the Togaviridae virus family and is spread through the bite of mosquitos, often the same mosquitos that transmit dengue virus, Zika virus, and several other mosquito-borne viruses. See the CDC website for more information.
Nipah virus is part of the Paramyxoviridae virus family and was first discovered in 1999 in Malaysia and Singapore among pig farmers. Flying foxes (Pteropus bats) are the natural reservoir of the virus and are found in China, Southeast Asia, India, Australia, and Madagascar. See the CDC website for more information.
Disease X represents a pathogen that could cause an international epidemic or pandemic but is currently unknown to cause disease in humans. Disease X research is often focused on whole families or classes of pathogens (ex. viruses) in order to more broadly understand common qualities and characteristics of these pathogens. See WHO website for more information.